First of all, I have specifically chosen this image to open my journal for a couple reasons. Andy Warhol was an artist examining the boundaries of art, and in the context of this picture you see Warhol looking into your eyes and into the eyes of the pictured viewer. The effect is that while the viewer is examining the self-portrait, Warhol is examining his audience. How does art function in society?
The list of characteristics I have is somewhat short because I think crowding the list makes it more likely to fail in certain cases:
Visible Process: the composition and brush strokes are visible, the subject matter may not be connected to anything considered "important" and there are clear references to past paintings. Here is a Manet called the luncheon. The luncheon has
Self-Referential: for example paintings are flat, taking advantage of that, reminding the viewer it is only a painting. here is an example of a Matisse that does that: Harmony in red This painting is clearly flat. It has all the elements of a painting that should have perspective but has none.
And lastly, modern pieces can range in subject matter to artistic elements themselves like in the luncheon or commonplace activities or absolutely nothing except the elements of a painting (colors, lines, and shapes) like in this Mondrian Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red Or in this Kandinsky Composition VII